Types of Tourism
Types of Tourism
Tourism is the practice and theory of bringing, entertaining, or accommodating visitors to a place; the concerned business of arranging, securing, and inviting guests to one’s land or other property, for the purpose of leisure, pleasure, research, education, or otherwise. The word came from the Greek travel, “tour” (meaning ‘traveling’) and “iotropismos,” the word for “advisage.” Today tourism has become an expanding business worldwide, providing employment to thousands of people involved in its various facets, and contributing significantly to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of many countries. Some countries depend on tourism for more than half their revenue, while many others are rapidly becoming a major player in the field.
Tourism promotes social and cultural development in host countries, increases standards of living and disposable income, creates and preserves jobs, develops language and culture, and makes travel easier, more comfortable, and safer. It brings people and cultural communities together for the purposes of recreation, education, literature, art, and other intangible benefits. It creates a more cosmopolitan community and fosters tourism by establishing a more familiar external environment that both natives and visitors can easily relate with. The conventional environment of tourism often differs considerably from the usual environment experienced by tourists.
While visiting an unfamiliar country, most tourists tend to adjust quickly to the customs, food, and scenery, without taking into account the effect it may have on the everyday life of the individual traveler. For this reason, tourism affects the domestic market, creating shortages and fluctuations that affect the production, financing, and sale of goods and services as they adjust to local conditions. This industry has been especially affected by natural disasters and other factors that can endanger the lives of ordinary people and cause damage to infrastructure. Political instability in host countries has also been an important factor in pushing the tourism industry toward globalization, increasing competition, and reducing opportunities for local players.
There are two main types of tourism: inbound tourism and outbound tourism. Inbound tourism refers to the movement of tourists from one location to another on business or leisure activities. Examples of outbound destinations are the major cities of developed countries such as London, Tokyo, New York, and Paris, which draw tourists from all over the world. These tourists usually prefer hotels and restaurants for their daily meals and may spend part of their leisure time in sightseeing or shopping. Some do not entertain overnight guests and choose to visit popular tourist destinations at more seasonal times.
The traditional sources of inward tourism were the contacts made during previous visits, usually family or friends who made repeated trips over several years. Modern day, most tourists are either international or domestic tourists looking to move to a new location for better prospects or to experience a new culture. International tourism generally constitutes a much larger share of the overall tourism industry, accounting for about 80% of total revenues. Domestic tourism, on the other hand, generally consists of visits to family or friends, a business trip, or holiday.
Today there are various ways to classify tourism among the various regions of the country. Based on economic development, some states enjoy a high level of inbound tourism whereas others have a high outbound tourism. On the contrary, some developing countries have a low level of both inbound and outbound tourism. As far as destinations and methods of travel are concerned, each state has its own choice. But, while traveling outside the country of reference, whether for leisure or business, it is always advisable to have a general idea of the country of reference, whether national or regional, so as to get a better picture of the culture and tourist attractions prevalent in that area.